ARTICLES ON TEACHING PSYCHOANALYSIS TO COLLEGE STUDENTS
• Anderegg, D. (2004). Paging Dr. Froid: Teaching Psychoanalytic Theory to Undergraduates. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 21(2), 214-221.
ABSTRACT: Teaching psychoanalytic theory to undergraduates is hampered by many contemporary biases, including the reputation of Freud as a remote and disapproving patriarch. One way to undo this corrosive image when teaching undergraduates is not to deemphasize Freud but to embrace the parts of Freud's work that are revolutionary, creative, witty, and entertaining. Historical context can help students identify with the young, iconoclastic Freud and therefore increase their openness to Freudian ideas. Examples of teaching practices and students' responses are provided.
• Araoz, D. (2006). The Symptom is not the whole story: Psychoanalysis for non-psychoanalysts. New York: Other Press.
Directed to all the mental health practitioners who know nothing or very little about psychoanalysis or who have misconceptions and distorted ideas of psychoanalysis. I made an effort of writing it in simple language and avoiding technical jargon. Smart high school students have read it, understanding the basic message regarding the unconscious and introspection as the method to discover the "unknown" level of our human existence.
• Auchincloss, E, L; Kravis, N M. “Teaching Freud to undergraduates: a case report.” The International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, v. 81 ( Pt 4), 2000, p. 753-770.
ABSTRACT: The authors describe their experience teaching 'The Writings of Sigmund Freud' to undergraduates at Columbia College over a three-year period. The course focused on Freud's developing theory of the mind, his application of psychoanalytic theory to the study of culture, and the autobiographical and historical context in which the texts were written. The students entered the course intrigued by the controversy surrounding Freud. They immersed themselves in the intellectual task of understanding Freud's work while at the same time discovering its power to speak directly to their personal concerns. The students found in Freud a companion in the search for personal meaning in the 'great books' of the western canon. At a deeper level, they found in Freud an ally in the drama of coming-of-age, experienced in terms of separation and loss, concerns about normality and sexuality, the quest for autonomy and the search for identity. While interested in Freud's ideas about infantile sexuality, for the most part, they rejected the concept of the Oedipus complex. The authors present excerpts from the students' written work and classroom discussion. Their responses are explored in relation to the developmental tasks of adolescence.
• Bornstein, R. F. (1988). Psychoanalysis in the undergraduate curriculum: The treatment of psychoanalytic theory in abnormal psychology texts. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 5(1), 83-93.
ABSTRACT: Reviews some of the resources available for academic psychologists to teach psychoanalysis to undergraduate psychology students. Several texts commonly employed in teaching undergraduate abnormal psychology and psychopathology courses are reviewed with the aim of evaluating the extent to which they accurately reflect the breadth and complexity of psychoanalytic thought as it applies to these areas of inquiry. The books reviewed here were chosen on the basis of two criteria: (a) They are popular, widely used undergraduate abnormal psychology texts; and (b) they represent a range of perspectives on psychoanalysis, with some books written from a psychodynamic perspective, and others generally opposed to the psychoanalytic view.
• Bornstein, R. F. (2001). The impending death of psychoanalysis. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 18(1), 3-20.
ABSTRACT: Although psychoanalysis once dominated psychology, evidence now points to the waning influence of psychoanalytic theory in psychological science, psychiatric diagnosis, undergraduate instruction, and graduate training. In this article I describe 7 self-destructive behaviors exhibited by psychoanalysts that contributed to the precipitous decline of psychoanalytic theory in recent years. I then outline three strategies for retaining those features of psychoanalysis that are scientifically and clinically useful while jettisoning those that are dated and inaccurate. These strategies might enable scientific psychologists and research-minded practitioners to reinvigorate psychoanalytic theory during the 21st century.
• Bornstein, R. F. (2002). The impending death of psychoanalysis: From destructive obfuscation to constructive dialogue. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 19(3), 580-590.
ABSTRACT: The disconnection between psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology has reached the point that the long-term health of psychoanalytic theory is in serious jeopardy. "The Impending Death of Psychoanalysis" (Bornstein, 2001) was intended as a wake-up call to the author's psychoanalytic colleagues who choose not to use relevant research findings from within and outside the discipline in their theoretical and clinical work. However, some of those who responded to the article misperceived it as an attack on psychoanalysis. This article points out factual errors in the responses of these critics, corrects some of the distortions and misrepresentations that characterize their critiques, and places the debate within an appropriate historical context.
• Bornstein, R. F. (2005). Reconnecting Psychoanalysis to Mainstream Psychology. Challenges and Opportunities. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 22(3), 323-340.
ABSTRACT: Although psychoanalysis was once central to mainstream psychology, in recent years psychodynamic models of personality and psychopathology have become increasingly marginalized. The factors that combined to "disconnect" psychoanalysis from contemporary psychological science and clinical practice are examined, and strategies that can help reconnect psychoanalysis to mainstream psychology are described. These are (a) the use of nomothetic research methods to test and refine psychoanalytic concepts and (b) the communication of psychoanalytic principles and findings to colleagues, students, and members of the public. Opportunities and challenges that arise during this reconnection process are discussed, and prospects for the rebirth of a truly heuristic, integrative psychoanalysis are considered.
• Burstein, A. G., Gillian, J. (1997). Teaching Freud: A lesson. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 14(4), 457-473.
ABSTRACT: This article addresses the objectives of teaching undergraduates about psychoanalysis and offers some evidence for how those objectives are addressed in contemporary textbooks and achieved in the students. Arguing that there is a poor match between goals, strategies, and achievement, we make some specific suggestions about how to proceed.
• Cogan, R., Cochran, B. S., Velarde, L.C. (in press). Sexual Fantasies, Sexual Functioning, and Hysteria among Women: A Test of Freud's (1905) Hypothesis. Psychoanalytic Psychology.
ABSTRACT: In Three essays toward a theory of sexuality, Freud (1905) wrote of a relationship between hysteria and sexuality and commented that hysteria was precipitated by the onset of a real sexual situation. Here, the scores on a measure of hysteria and sexual fantasies of student women who were (N = 93) and were not (N = 26) intercourse active were compared. Women who were intercourse active had higher scores on the PDQ4+ Histrionic scale, p < .0001, and higher scores on Wilson’s Total Sexual Fantasies, p < .0001. In contrast, the PDQ4+ Obsessiveness scale scores of women in the two groups did not differ, p = .65. The results provide empirical support for a relationship between hysteria and sexuality.
• Cooper, A.M. (1978, October). Teaching Psychoanalysis to College Students. Paper presented at the Institute for Psychiatry and the Humanities, Ithaca, NY and published in the Community Psychiatry Reader (1984).
OPENING PARAGRAPH: Some 15 years ago, in a conversation with Professors Lionel Trilling and Kenneth Koch, both of the Columbia University English Department, I expressed my dismay that highly intelligent Columbia College students, coming to see me for professional consultations, often ended our interview with a statement like the following, “I know I need psychotherapy, but I am sure I don’t want anything to do with psychoanalysis, which everyone knows is passé.” In discussing this view with the students, it became clear that these otherwise extraordinarily well-educated students were abysmally lacking any knowledge of psychoanalysis. My query to Professor Trilling was “How could it be justified in the 1960’s, for a major center of liberal arts education not to teach one of the major sources and shapers of modern consciousness—Freudian psychoanalysis?”
• Dunn, D. S., & Dougherty, B. (2005). Faculty Forum: Teaching Freud by Reading Freud: Controversy As Pedagogy. Teaching of Psychology, 32(2), 114-116.
ABSTRACT: Freud's scientific legacy is controversial within contemporary psychology. There are pedagogical benefits to this controversy, however, because instructors can use it to encourage students to critically evaluate Freud's contributions. We describe a course in which students discuss Freud's works from different points in his career, along with available empirical evidence and recent critical commentaries. We present the course readings, writing assignments, examinations, and student evaluations.
• Freud, S. (1956). On the teaching of psycho-analysis in universities (1918). International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 37, 14-15.
ABSTRACT: A university stands to gain by including the teaching of psychoanalysis in its curriculum despite the fact that the teaching can be given only by means of theoretical lectures. The university teaching will not make a psychoanalyst out of the medical student, but it will teach him important essentials of the field.
• Miserandino, M. (1996). Teaching a personality course in Vienna. Teaching of Psychology, 23(4), 240-241.
ABSTRACT: This article describes a course, Vienna's Psychologists: Freud, Adler, and Frankl, taught in Vienna to American college students during the summer of 1995. Students read the original works of Freud, Adler, and Frankl; went on field trips to places relevant to the theorists; and gained an appreciation of psychoanalysis, individual psychology, and logotherapy in the context of the history and culture of Vienna. Taking a course in social allows students to understand the cultural, historical, and social forces affecting theorists and their theories. Such interdisciplinary understanding is the essence of liberal education.
• Park, S. W. & Auchincloss. E. L. (2006). Psychoanalysis in textbooks of Introductory Psychology: A review. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 54(4), 1361-1380
OPENING PARAGRAPH: The fields of psychoanalysis and academic psychology were born within a decade of one another at the end of the nineteenth century. The founder of the discipline of academic psychology is generally considered to be Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1902). After more than twenty years working to develop “physiological psychology” under the direction of Hermann von Helmholtz at the University of Berlin’s Institute of Physiology, Wundt established the first institute of psychology at the University of Leipzig in 1879. The new institute was granted official status in 1883.
• Shusterman, N. (2007, January 12). We’re Assigning the Wrong Freud. The Chronicle Review (www.chronicle.com/review).
OPENING PARAGRAPH: The first time I taught Freud was as a graduate student in the mid-1990s. At that time, most undergraduates were old enough to have grown up watching reruns of M*A*S*H*, a show that, once a season or so, gave its viewers a quick lesson in Freudian psychoanalysis. The relevant episodes were based around the psychiatrist Sidney Freedman, a recurring character who would be called in when one of the characters was having psychological difficulties. One would expect people in a war zone to have psychological problems, but Dr. Freedman was not interested in diagnosing characters with, say, post-traumatic stress disorder and writing them a prescription. The problems Dr. Freedman's patients were going through were rarely what they appeared to be. The traumas of war only exacerbated their real problems, hidden beneath their symptoms. Dr. Freedman always looked for something deeper — something repressed, something ... unconscious.
• Smith, D. (2000, November 4). Returning to Freud for Help With the Riddles of Philosophy. The New York Times.
OPENING PARAGRAPH: ''I say this whole picture of striving toward something needs to be criticized,'' said Jonathan Lear. Mr. Lear is talking about nothing less than death and happiness. That may not seem odd for a philosophy professor. Still, at a time when departments are dominated by Kantian abstractions and the narrow logical constructions of analytic philosophy, Mr. Lear is someone who isn't afraid to ask big questions.
• Stanton, M. and Reason, D. (eds). (1996). Teaching transference. London: Rebus Press.